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Immunization: Schedule, Contraindications, Pros and Cons, and More

Immunization Schedule

Even before the child is born, parents should find out what injections are given to newborns and make a joint decision about their need, because in the maternity hospital it will be necessary to sign either consent or rejection of them. Below you can find the immunization schedules for people of all ages and general recommendations on vaccination.

Immunization Schedule 2018

Age Vaccination
Newborns in the first 24 hours of life First vaccination against viral hepatitis B
Newborns on the 3rd – 7th day of life Vaccination against tuberculosis
1-month-old children Second vaccination against viral hepatitis B
2-month-old children Third vaccination against viral hepatitis B (risk groups)

First vaccination against pneumococcal infection

3-month-old children First vaccination against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus.

First polio vaccination

First vaccination against hemophilic infection (risk groups

4,5-month-old children Second vaccination against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus

Second vaccination against hemophilic infection (risk groups)

Second polio vaccination

Second pneumococcal vaccination

6-month-old children Third vaccination against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus

Third vaccination against viral hepatitis B

Third polio vaccination

Third vaccination against hemophilic infection (risk group)

12-month-old children Vaccination against measles, rubella, mumps

The fourth vaccination against viral hepatitis B (risk groups)

Vaccination against chickenpox before entering preschool educational institutions for children

15-month-old children Revaccination against pneumococcal infection
18-month-old children First revaccination against poliomyelitis

First revaccination against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus

Revaccination against hemophilic infection (risk groups)

20-month-old children Second revaccination against poliomyelitis
Children 3-6 years of age Hepatitis A vaccination for children before entering preschool educational institutions for children
Children 6 years of age Revaccination against measles, rubella, mumps
Children 6 – 7 years of age Second revaccination against diphtheria, tetanus

Revaccination against tuberculosis

Girls 12-13 years of age Vaccination against human papillomavirus
Children 14 years of age Third revaccination against diphtheria, tetanus

Third revaccination against poliomyelitis

Adults from 18 years old Revaccination against diphtheria, tetanus – every 10 years from the moment of the last revaccination
Children from 1 year to 18 years, adults from 18 to 55 years that have not been previously vaccinated Vaccination against hepatitis B
Children from 1 year to 18 years (inclusive) and adults up to 35 years (inclusive), not ill previously, not vaccinated, vaccinated once, not having information about vaccinations against measles; adults from 36 to 55 years old (inclusive) belonging to risk groups (employees of medical and educational organizations, trade, transport, municipal and social organizations; rotational workers, and employees of state control authorities at checkpoints across the state border), not ill previously, not vaccinated, vaccinated once, not having information about vaccinations against measles Measles vaccination, measles revaccination
Children from 6 months, students 1 – 11 grades; students of professional educational organizations and educational institutions of higher education; adults working in certain professions and positions (employees of medical and educational organizations, transport, utilities); pregnant women; adults over 60; persons to be called up for military service; persons with chronic diseases, including lung diseases, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders and obesity Flu vaccine

Vaccine reactions

  • Hepatitis B: Vaccination against hepatitis to newborns can have consequences such as painful reddening at the injection site and a rise in temperature (it is conditionally normal for the body temperature to rise to 37–37.5 degrees Celcius). With repeated vaccinations, the likelihood of such a reaction is reduced;
  • BCG: After BCG vaccination in newborns, the reaction does not occur immediately. After four to six weeks, a condensation will form on the injection site (reddening is also possible), which will disappear after two to three months, leaving a small scar. Such a reaction of the newborn to the BCG vaccination is natural and will indicate the development of immunity;
  • DTP: Local reaction is manifested by compaction and redness of the skin at the injection site, which should disappear in a few days. The overall reaction may include a temperature increase of up to 38 degrees Celsius, general malaise, drowsiness, or, conversely, excessive agitation. Such manifestations can occur after both the first and subsequent vaccinations and are considered normal;
  • Polio: Vaccination against poliomyelitis is done either as an injection, or a drop is administered into the child’s mouth. In the first case, a condensation and redness may occur at the vaccine injection site. The oral administration of the vaccine is virtually absent. In some cases, allergic complications such as rashes may occur;
  • Rubella: Seven days after vaccination, the temperature may rise slightly. A small increase in lymph nodes is also a normal reaction. A week after vaccination, the temperature sometimes rises slightly;
  • Measles: A serious temperature rise (up to 39 degrees Celsius) can occur five or even ten days after this vaccination. The baby’s eyes and cheeks may turn red and have a stuffy nose;
  • Mumps: Reactions are similar to those given by the vaccine against measles, and they can appear ten days after the introduction of the vaccine.

Vaccinations for newborns: pros and cons

There are two diametrically opposite opinions: “it is necessary to do all the vaccinations according to the schedule, even if the child does not tolerate them well” and “avoid vaccinations in any case and let the child’s immunity cope with all the misfortunes itself”.

“For”:

  • Vaccination is necessary, even if it does not protect the child from infectious diseases by 100%, but it can significantly reduce the risk of falling ill;
  • Even if the vaccinated child falls ill, he suffers infections more easily than the unvaccinated;
  • If the child is not vaccinated, he will constantly fall ill;
  • Universal vaccination helps avoid epidemics, so unvaccinated children become a threat to the health of others.

“Against”:

  • Modern vaccines do not justify their hopes for the protection of health, their effectiveness is questionable;
  • Babies are given too many vaccinations, their immunity is subjected to too much stress and cannot develop to its full potential (in this case, many parents do not refuse vaccinations at all, but postpone them for some time);
  • The first vaccinations (against hepatitis B and tuberculosis) do not make sense to the baby immediately after birth since living in favorable conditions he almost does not have the opportunity to face these infections in the near future. The risk is not so great, while the effects of vaccinations in newborns can be serious;
  • The danger of some diseases is exaggerated (often parents believe that children with rubella or measles at an early age are not seriously ill);
  • The incidence of various serious complications after vaccine administration is very high. Therefore, there can be no “universal” vaccination; an individual approach is required for each child.

Without going to extremes, it would be better to weigh the pros and cons of vaccination specifically for your family, your life situation and the child’s health condition and make decisions on how to do each specific vaccination individually, based on the opinion of experts you trust, but taking all the responsibility on yourself.

Contraindications for vaccination

The pediatrician assesses the child’s condition before vaccination. The list of reasons for the so-called medical withdrawal includes:

  • prematurity, birth weight less than 2 kg (taken into account when discussing vaccination against tuberculosis in newborns);
  • yeast allergy (important even when the first vaccine is given to a newborn – against hepatitis B);
  • primary immunodeficiency state;
  • serious complications from earlier vaccinations;
  • diseases of the nervous system, convulsions (for DTP);
  • allergy to aminoglycosides (an antibiotic group) and egg white protein;
  • acute manifestations of infectious diseases and periods of exacerbation of chronic diseases.

Vaccination conditions

  • Individual approach to the baby: a preliminary examination by a doctor, a conversation with parents about the child’s well-being, measurement of body temperature, urine and blood tests;
  • The child and all members of his family must be healthy;
  • It is impossible to combine the introduction of new foods and vaccination;
  • Do not vaccinate the child during teething;
  • After an illness, wait a month for a vaccination;
  • Allergic children should start receiving antihistamine medicines three days before the vaccination (doctor’s consultation is necessary);
  • After the injection, sit with the child for half an hour at the vaccination room: the medical staff will assist in case of a severe reaction to the drug;
  • Do not bathe the baby on the day of vaccination;
  • Avoid crowds of children, do not go for a walk after vaccination.

Category: General Issues