There is a myth that vaccinations are done only in childhood. Some believe that “natural immunity” and a healthy lifestyle is enough to cope with all germs. Unfortunately, this is a myth: no innate immunity will protect us from specific bacteria and viruses. The WHO reminds that immunity against certain diseases is not maintained for the whole life, therefore, it is necessary to periodically conduct revaccination, re-introduction of vaccines. Also, adults should be vaccinated if they have not received protection from them in childhood. My Canadian Pharmacy informs you which immunizations you may need.
Diseases That Can Be Prevented by Adult Immunizations
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Diphtheria is an acute, life-threatening infectious disease. It occurs in the form of acute inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, mainly the pharynx (approximately 90% of cases), the nose, the skin where it is damaged, the eyes or the genital organs. The main threat, however, is not inflammation, but poisoning by a toxin, which is produced by the bacterium, the causative agent of the disease, and cardiovascular and nervous systems are predominantly affected.
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Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus. Hepatitis A virus is distinguished by record resistance to external influences. The hepatitis A virus spreads mainly when an uninfected (or unvaccinated) person consumes food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person. The virus can also be transmitted through close physical contact with an infected person, but hepatitis is not transmitted through casual contact. The disease is closely linked to the lack of safe water, inadequate sanitation and poor personal hygiene. Sources of the virus are people who are sick. Disease can have significant economic and social consequences in individual communities. It can take weeks and months to restore people’s health to return to work, to school, and to daily life.
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Hepatitis B (HVB) is a viral infection of the liver that can cause both acute and chronic illness. The virus is transmitted through contact with the blood or other body fluids of an infected person. Hepatitis B virus can survive outside the body for at least 7 days. During this time, the virus is still able to cause infection when it enters a human body that is not protected by a vaccine. Hepatitis B is a global health problem. The virus can lead to the development of chronic liver disease and create a high risk of death from cirrhosis and liver cancer. According to WHO estimates, about 2 billion people worldwide were infected with this virus, more than 350 million people are sick. Approximately 780,000 people die each year from this infection – 650,000 from cirrhosis and liver cancer as a result of chronic and another 130,000 from acute hepatitis B.
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Human Papilomavirus (HPV)
Human Papilomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common viral infections that can cause papillomas and warts. The causative agent is a human papillomavirus. Ways of infection: contact-household, when using hygienic objects of the patient or carrier of the virus; sexual way, during unprotected sex, promiscuity. Since the disease is characterized by an asymptomatic course, it is very difficult to establish the true cause of the infection. Late treatment can lead to serious problems, such as the development of cervical cancer.
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Influenza (also known as “the flu”)
Influenza is an acute infectious disease of viral nature, characterized by lesions of the upper respiratory tract. The source of the disease is a sick person who is most dangerous in the first days of the illness. The route of transmission of a viral infection is airborne when communicating, shaking hands, talking, sneezing. In some cases, a contact-household way of transmission through household items, etc. is possible. The peak incidence of influenza occurs in the autumn-winter period.
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Measles is an acute viral disease, infectious in nature, the causative agent is the measles virus. This disease affects the human central nervous system. The incubation period lasts from 7 to 21 days, the source and reservoir of the disease is a sick person. The disease is transmitted by airborne droplets from a sick person when talking, coughing or sneezing. Depending on the nature of the course of the disease, measles form can be typical and atypical. The typical form of measles has the classic clinical manifestations of the disease, the atypical form is characterized by a course with erased symptoms.
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Mumps is an acute infectious disease of viral nature, which affects the glandular organs and the nervous system. The causative agent of the disease is a paramyxovirus-containing RNA virus. A sick person serves as a carrier and reservoir. The disease is transmitted by airborne droplets, sneezing, talking, coughing, kissing.
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Meningococcal meningitis is a bacterial form of meningitis, a serious infection that affects the membranes of the brain and spinal cord. In 10% of cases, it can lead to severe brain damage, in the absence of treatment – it is fatal in 50% of cases. The disease is spread all over the world, but the highest incidence is observed in sub-Saharan Africa, from Senegal in the west to Ethiopia in the east. About 30,000 cases of the disease are still reported annually in this region. Vaccines against various serogroups are used to prevent the disease (routine immunization) and in response to outbreaks of infection (urgent reactive vaccination).
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Whooping cough (pertussis) is an acute infectious disease of the respiratory system. The causative agent of pertussis is Gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. The reservoir and carrier of the disease is a man. Patients in the catarrhal stage of the disease are particularly dangerous. The way of transmission of the disease is airborne.
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Pneumococcal pneumonia is an acute viral disease characterized by an inflammatory process in the lower respiratory tract. The main causative agents of viral pneumonia are influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza virus, measles virus, adenovirus, metapneumovirus, herpes virus, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, respiratory syncytial virus. The route of transmission is usually airborne or contact.
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Rubella is an acute infectious disease of viral nature, the causative agent of which is a virus from the group of Togavirus. Rubella pathogen is an RNA-containing virus from the Togaviridae Stamm, of the genus Rubivirus. The disease is highly infectious, it is transmitted by airborne droplets when talking, coughing, sneezing, household way when using common dishes, toys. A sick person acts as a carrier and reservoir of the disease. People can get infected with rubella in any age.
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Shingles is a disease of viral nature, which is accompanied by a characteristic rash on the patient’s skin and a strong pain effect. The causative agent of the disease is the virus of the family Herpesviridae. The cause of the disease may be the suppression of immunity, for example, as a result of taking immunosuppressants, high physical exertion, stress, serious emotional shocks. With such serious diseases as oncology, AIDS, the appearance of recurrent shingles is typical.
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Tetanus, sometimes called “lockjaw”, is a serious illness that causes tightening of the muscles all over the body. Tetanus enters the body through a break in the skin and leads to death in about one out of ten cases.
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Varicella is an acute, highly contagious viral disease prevalent throughout the world. As soon as one case occurs among susceptible individuals, it is very difficult to prevent an outbreak of the disease. While varicella is a relatively mild disease in childhood, it takes on more serious forms in adults. It can be fatal, especially in newborns and in immunocompromised individuals. The causative agent of varicella, zoster virus (VZV), is transmitted by airborne droplets or by direct contact. Transmission of infection through third parties and household items is impossible. Man is the only reservoir. Varicella zoster virus enters the human body through the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx and almost without exception causes the clinical manifestations of the disease in susceptible individuals. After infection, the virus remains latent in the nerve ganglia and as a result of VZV activation, it can cause shingles.
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